Other consequences of air pollution include, depletion of ozone layer, the acid rain and global warming. Ozone layer protecting the earth from harmful ultraviolet rays. It is depleting due to the presence of chlorofluorocarbons and hydro- chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere and it emitting harmful radiation back to the earth. Global warming is the climate change which contribute to the increased temperature of the surface. It causes dryness of the surface and soil infertility which affect the agricultural system.
Deforestation is a major problem of the whole world which cause environmental degradation. Humans destructing the forests by using woods to fulfill their needs and the other reason of deforestation is over population.
The other major issue in developing countries is the waste management. There is no proper system to reduce Trash and garbage. People throw their household waste anywhere which cause pollution. Lack of recycling techniques also leads to over production of goods.
There are some natural causes of environmental degradation like storm, floods, volcanic eruptions and earth quakes etc. the lives of Humans and animals both disturb due to these environmental disasters.
Solution of the environmental degradation to improve sustainability development:
Environmental degradation is a worldwide problem and it affects all the countries of the world. To improve the environmental sustainability, environmental degradation should be controlled to save the lives of present and future generations. Government should make proper policies and strategies to overcome these problems.
Increased population and the use of modern technologies are the main reason of deterioration of the resources. People moves from rural areas to the urban areas rapidly which increase urbanization. Therefore, over urbanization should be controlled.
There should be proper drainage system and also proper system where the industrial chemicals should throw away to remain canals, rivers and sea clean. The agricultural system should also be improved by using fertilizers in effective way to avoid the water pollution.
Reforestation and afforestation is very important to implement because trees play vital role to decrease the environmental degradation because they reduce air pollution and create clean environment.
Waste management also contribute to the healthy environment. Recycling of trash and garbage decrease the pollution. Overconsumption and production of goods should be controlled to reduce waste. Things which could not recycled e.g. plastic bags and plastic bottled should not be banned.
Education is very important to manage all the problems related to the environment. People should be aware of the environmental- friendly behavior. Education helps to use the minimum natural resources to get maximum benefits.
There is also a relationship between poverty and environmental degradation because poor people survive on natural resources and they cannot afford technologies to protect and maintain these resources which leads to environmental degradation. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce poverty.
There are many worldwide agencies e.g. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-ordination and Development), UNRISD (United Nations Research Institute for Social Development), WHO (World Health Organization) and EAP Task Force etc. working on environmental sustainability which analyze social, economic and environmental factors at national and international level.
The government of Pakistan is also working on many policies and strategies for the environmental protection which includes NEP National Environment Policy of Pakistan, EPA (Environmental protection agencies), NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards), PEPA (Pakistan Environmental Protection Act) etc. These agencies are working on environmental sustainability by improving agricultural system, water and air pollution control, poverty reduction and improvement in education system.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2007). Policies for a better environment: progress in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Tyagi, S., Garg, N., & Paudel, R. (2014). Environmental degradation: Causes and consequences. European Researcher, 81(8-2), 1491.
Choudhary, M. P., Chauhan, G. S., & Kushwah, Y. K. (2015). Environmental degradation: causes, impacts and mitigation. In National Seminar on Recent Advancements in Protection of Environment and Its Management Issues (NSRAPEM-2015).
Asian Development Bank [ADB]. (2008). Islamic Republic of Pakistan Country Environment Analysis.